Rights of Allah and of Fellow Human Beings


Rights of Allah and of Fellow Human Beings
Ibn Taimiyyah
Allah has certain rights upon His slaves in wich He does not want that others be associated. There are rights of Messengers wich are also not to be shared by others. On the authority of Muazdh ibn Jabl it is recorded in Al-Bukhari and Muslim:
"I was seated behind the Prophet(saws) on a camel. He asked me: "Do you know what obligations man owes to Allah?" I replied: "Allah and His Messenger know it better." He continued: "Man owes it to Allah that he should worship no one other than Him and not take any as partner with Him." He then enquired me about the rights of man upon Allah. When I replied that Allah and His Messenger are better informed, he said: "The right of man is that Allah would not afflict him with penalty."
Allah therefore deserves to be worshipped without any partner ascribed to Him. This constitutes real monotheism, the message of all His Messengers and Scriptures. Allah says:
We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We inspired him saying: 'There is none to be worshipped but Allah, so worship Allah alone.' [Al-Anbiya, 21:25]
And verily W3 have sent among every community a Messenger (proclaiming): 'Worship Allah and avoid false deities'. [An-Nahl, 16:36]
Another obligation is that man should fear none other than Allah:
And who obeys Allah and His Messenger, fears Allah, and keeps his duty to Him, such is succesful. [An-Nur, 24:52]
While obedience is due to both Allah and His Messenger, Allah alone is to be feared. The Qur'an says:
Would that they were content with what Allah and His Messenger gave them and had said: Allah is sufficient for us. Allah will give us of His bounty and His Messenger. We implore Allah (to enrich us). [At-Tawbah, 9:59]
In the above verse, once again, obedience to both Allah and His Messenger is stated as an obligation. This idea recurs in all relevant verses:
And take whatever the Messenger gives and abstain from whatever he forbids. [Al-Hashr, 59:7]
Thus the lawful and the unlawful are those designated so by the Prophet(saws). So is faith what is prescribed by him. Yet one should have full reliance on the One True Allah. Allah is sufficient for man, not a Messenger. This point comes out sharply in the following verse:
The hypocrites told the believers: 'Verily the unbelievers have gathered against you ( a great army), therefore, fear them.' But it only increased them in faith and they said: Allah is sufficient for us, and He is the best disposer of affairs. [Al-'Imran, 3:173]
Grace and bounty is related to Allah alone while gift is related to both Allah and His Messenger. One cannot take from him as much as possible. For one has to turn to Allah. This is exclusive to Allah. Even the Prophet(saws) is asked:
So when you have finished, stand up for Allah's  worship. And to your Lord turn your invocations. [Al-Sharh, 95:7-8]
Who would enter Paradise without Reckoning
In the above Qur'anic verse, it is commanded to turn to Allah. He does not ask a creature to turn to another creature. This is, however, permissible in some exceptional cases. Yet it is not the norm. It is preferable for man not to turn to anyone other than Allah. According to the Hadith which spells out the features of those who would enter Paradise without the Reckoning, it is said:
"These are the ones who do not indulge in incantation, cauterization, bad omens and they rely only on their Lord." They are not those who do not make supplications yet they do not request others to do so on their behalf. The Prophet(saws) used to make supplication for both himself and others. He, however, did not ask someone to do it on his behalf. He directed Ibn Abbas to turn to Allah alone in his need and to seek only His help. Allah alone is to be trusted, invoked for help, feared, looked upon with hope, served and worshipped. No one else has any authority or power. One can get refuge against Him only in His mercy. The Qur'an amply bears out the above points.
Obedience to the Prophet(saws)
One should obey and love the Prophet(saws), be content with his judgement, hold him in great esteem, follow him and have conviction in the guidance sent down on him. Allah tells:
He who obeys the Messenger(Muhammad) indeed obeys Allah. [An-Nisa, 4:80]
We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed with Allah's leave. [An-Nisa, 4:64]
Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained; the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His cause, then wait until Allah brings about His decision. And Allah does not guide the wicked people. [At-Tawbah, 9:24]
Who would enjoy the taste of faith?
According to Bukhari and Muslim,
"One blessed with these three qualities would enjoy the taste of faith: One holds Allah and His Messenger dearer than everyone else; who loves someone only for the sake of Allah; who would detest reverting to unbelief as he would loathe to fall into fire."  The Prophet(saws) said,
"By Him Who holds my life in His Hands, you cannot attain faith unless you hold me dearer than your children, your parents and everyone."
Umar once submitted to him:
"You are the dearest to me, except my own self." He replied: "No! You should strive unless you hold me dearer than your own self." Umar then said: "You have now become dearer to me than my own self." The Prophet(saws) then endorsed his stance."
Allah says:
Say (O Muhammad to mankind) : 'If you love Allah then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your sins.' [Al-'Imran, 3:31]
Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad) as a witness, as bearer of glad tidings, and as a warner in order that you may believe in Allah and His Messenger and that you assist and honour him and glorify Allah's praises morning and afternoon. [Al-Fath, 48:8-9]
It elucidates that one should believe in both Allah and His Messenger; the former be praised and worshipped and the latter be honoured and obeyed.