An Excellent Pattern of Conduct
Dr. Farīdah Sādiq Zūzū
Allah says: “You
have indeed in Allah’s Messenger an excellent pattern of conduct for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day
and who engages much in the praise of Allah.” [Surah al-Ahzāb: 21]
The Importance of Emulating
As this verse makes perfectly clear, the example of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is the one
that we as Muslims must emulate. The principle of emulating the Prophet (peace be upon him) is a very important one in Islam,
and the way in which the Muslims have put this principle into practice since the time of the Companions is a topic worthy
of the most serious research, study and reflection. This is because sometimes people go to excesses whereby the very purpose
behind emulating the Prophet (peace be upon him) is lost. Others take a lackadaisical attitude about it, to the point of showing
disrespect for the one who brought Allah’s Message to us. Of course, both of these tendencies only developed after the
era of the Companions.
We also find that, ever since the codification of Islamic Law, there developed a narrow understanding
of what it means to emulate the Prophet (peace be upon him) restricted entirely to legal matters. Such an outlook focuses
heavily on acts of worship and religious rites and, in other matters, rarely ever extends beyond considerations of what is
lawful and what is prohibited.
It escapes me why, whenever Muslims think about following their Prophet’s example,
they immediately start thinking along juristic terms. This is in spite of the fact that the Qur’ān comes with numerous
verses calling towards emulating the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the most general of terms.
Besides the verse mentioned
above, Allah says: “And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever he forbids you, abstain from it.”
[Sūrah al-Hashr: 7]
Allah says: “Let those beware who go against his order lest a trial afflict them
or there befall them a painful chastisement.” [Sūrah al-Nūr: 63]
He says: “Now has come unto
you a Messenger from amongst yourselves: it grieves him that you should fall into distress: ardently anxious is he over you.
To the Believers is he most kind and merciful.” [Sūrah al-Tawbah: 128]
He also says: “It is He
who has sent amongst the unlettered a messenger from among themselves, to rehearse to them His signs, to sanctify them, and
to instruct them in Scripture and Wisdom – although they had been, before, in manifest error.” [Sūrah al-Jumu`ah:
It is an accepted fact that the Prophet (peace be upon him) came with Islam, and Islam is more than a body of legislation,
though the Law is a central part of it. Islam is guidance for the human being in every aspect of his existence.
it is imperative that we establish and develop our knowledge of how to emulate the Prophet (peace be upon him) as a field
of study in its own right. We need to study and investigate the various spheres of activity in which the emulation of the
Prophet (peace be upon him) is to be carried out as well as how we are to do so. In this way, the Prophet's example will truly
become the ideal model for every Muslim in every aspect of his or her life. It should encompass the Muslim’s very outlook
on life and on Creation. It should shape the Muslim’s activities and direct his methods in every role that the Muslim
assumes – whether it be the role of leader, parent, teacher, Islamic worker, or something else.
Role of the Companions in Developing our Concept of Emulation
No doubt, in order to base our concept of emulating
the Prophet (peace be upon him) on a firm foundation, we will have to live alongside the Companions. We will have to put ourselves
in their place while they endeavored to understand the example of the Prophet (peace be upon him) living in their midst, as
well as while they endeavored to apply that example to their lives after his death.
The understanding of the Companions
is of central importance to our formulating a proper methodological framework. We must consider that the Companions were the
ones who actually witnessed the revelation while it was being revealed. They lived with the Prophet (peace be upon him) who
was there to correct their behavior and their misunderstandings, and to direct their vision to proper guidance and to how
to follow him. They were able to realize the distinction of being the best – by the testimony of Allah and His messenger
– in their understanding of the Message, in their deeds, in their obedience, and in their emulation of the Prophet’s
At the same time, we see that each of the Companions still retained his unique personality and identity.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not make them all into carbon copies of himself. Nor did the Companions aspire to being
copies of him, in spite of how highly they held him in esteem and how much they were willing to sacrifice for his sake. This
was also in spite of the fact that their obedience to the Prophet (peace be upon him) was absolute, and that he unquestionably
remade their personalities. As one of the Companions described it: “Allah’s Messenger used to empty out our constituents
and then fill us up again.”
The Companions provide us collectively with a comprehensive model of emulation of
the Prophet’s example. Each Companion provides an example of emulation tied to his or her own unique character. Through
direct contact with the Prophet (peace be upon him), they each provide an informed practical example. Taken together, we get
a very complete picture of the manner of emulation adopted by the Companions, each through his personal experiencing contributing
a brick to the edifice of our understanding,
If we focus on any single Companion, we find that he would present to
us a facet of the general manner of emulation that we see when we observe the Companions as an entire generation.
wish, in the second part of this article, to focus on `Umar b. al-Khattāb and learn from his example how the Companions understood
the concept of emulating the Prophet (peace be upon him).
We have chosen of `Umar b. al-Khattāb to be our example of how the Companions emulated the Prophet
(peace be upon him), because `Umar had special qualities that make him of particular interest to us. He was one of the closest
of people to the Prophet (peace be upon him). In fact, Abū Bakr was the only person who was closer to the Prophet than `Umar.
Also, from among the Companions, `Umar played the greatest role in spreading the message of Islam and in developing the Islamic
During the Prophet’s lifetime, `Umar had the opportunity to issue legal verdicts. During Abū Bakr’s
time as Caliph, he carried out the role of a minister of state. Thereafter, he was appointed Caliph and assumed that responsibility
for more than a decade. During that time, he instituted the state records, established the national treasury, and brought
about numerous other developments. During his era, the frontiers of the Muslim world expanded considerably.
study the story of `Umar’s life from its biographical sources and then look at his narrations from the Prophet (peace
be upon him), we see a stark contrast. On the one hand, `Umar spent a considerable amount of time in the Prophet’s company.
He had been ever at his side. However, when we consider the number of hadīth that he narrated from the Prophet (peace be upon
him), we find them to be surprisingly few.
We would be wrong to draw from this the conclusion this that `Umar was
unconcerned about following the Prophet (peace be upon him). If that were the case, why did the Prophet (peace be upon him)
say: “Allah has placed the truth upon `Umar’s tongue and in his heart. He speaks the truth.”?
emulating the Prophet (peace be upon him) had meant simply relating his words without understanding, then `Umar would surely
have been one of the Companions to have narrated the most hadīth.
If emulating the Prophet (peace be upon him) had
meant blindly imitating his actions, then there would not have been the expansion in the domain of juristic reasoning that
took place after the Prophet’s death. We would never have seen the state records and all of the other measures that
`Umar instituted for the public welfare that did not exist in the Prophet’s day.
If emulating the Prophet (peace
be upon him) had meant following the Prophet’s example without seeking to understand and analyze what he did, then `Umar
would never have discussed and debated matters with the Prophet (peace be upon him) the way that he did on many occasions.
He did so about the prisoners of war after the Battle of Badr, about the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, and about the funeral prayer
of `Abd Allah b. Ubayy b. Salūl. He was also more than willing to volunteer his opinion when he saw the need to do so.
emulating the Prophet (peace be upon him) had been something superficial, `Umar never would have cut the trees of Hudaybiyah
or broken the stones of Mina, or placed a moratorium on the distribution of Zakāh funds for the purpose of reconciling people’s
hearts to Islam.
At the same time, if emulating the Prophet (peace be upon him) had meant investigating, analyzing,
and second-guessing everything that the Prophet (peace be upon him) ever said or did, then `Umar would never have made his
famous statement before kissing the black Stone: “I know that you are nothing but a stone. You cannot hurt or help anyone.
And had I not seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) kissing you, I would never kiss you.”
The Prophet (peace
be upon him) attested to `Umar’s right-guidance when he said: “Indeed, the truth expresses itself on his tongue.”
Likewise, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Abide by my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Caliphs
who shall come after me.” The Pious Predecessors all agreed that the Rightly Guided Caliphs were Abū Bakr, `Umar, `Uthmān,
He also said: “Of those who come after me, follow the example of Abū Bakr and `Umar.”
enjoyed the acceptance of all the Companions. The Prophet (peace be upon him) bore witness to his good character and conduct
on more than one occasion. From this we know that `Umar was clearly one of the closest people to the Prophet (peace be upon
him) and to the Prophet’s example, even if he narrated relatively few hadīth and even though he instituted many new
developments that had been unknown to the Muslims before his tenure as Caliph.
From these facts, we can surmise that
`Umar understood the emulation of the Prophet (peace be upon him) to be a matter of following his way, his approach, his methodology
– to emulate how the Prophet himself had related to the revelation given to him by his Lord and the way that he conveyed
the Message to humanity. For indeed, this is how the Prophet (peace be upon him) set the best example of conduct, an example
through which the guidance of the Qur’ān was communicated to the rest of humanity.
In spite of the fact that
all of the Companions shared in the principle of emulating the Prophet (peace be upon him), each had a unique way of doing
so that accorded with his personality and spirit. So even if `Abd Allah b. `Umar endeavored to walk down the paths that the
Prophet (peace be upon him) walked, following his very footsteps and seeking shade under the very same trees – we find
that his father, `Umar b. al-Khattāb, took another approach to emulation, and approach that was defined by certain clear principles
and that presents us with a general concept of emulation and a coherent methodology.
The methodology of `Umar in emulating the Prophet (peace be upon him) was governed by the following
1. `Umar considered the ideal of emulation to be embodied in preserving Allah’s Book and in focusing
one’s efforts upon it. He understood this from the prophet’s initial prohibition of writing down the Sunnah when
the Qur’ān was being revealed. He understood that the preservation of the Sunnah was implicit in the preservation of
the Qur’ān and in living according to its dictates.
2. `Umar would accept without question in matters which
had no rational explanation behind them, like his kissing the Black Stone because he saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) doing
so, even though he did not understand it. However, since he saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) doing so, he did likewise,
knowing that whatever the Prophet (peace be upon him) did was the truth. He did not add anything of his own when it came to
such matters. Indeed, he prohibited others from going beyond what the Prophet (peace be upon him) did or instructed.
`Umar saw the emulation of the Prophet (peace be upon him) in a broad, social context – a way that people dealt with
one another and what they put into practice as a community. This can be clearly seen in studying `Umar’s life, in how
he was averse to accepting that which was strange and how he pt great weight on the general transmission of practices as applied
by the people and as they were relevant to the people as a community. This approach would later become embodied in Mālik’s
juristic principle that the practice of the people of Madinah – their collective practice – is to be taken as
a source of Islamic Law.
We see how, when Abū Mūsā al-Ash`arī informed `Umar of a hadīth that he had not been familiar
with, `Umar insisted that he produce others to testify to what he said.
4. `Umar’s emulation of the Prophet
(peace be upon him) and imitation of his ways made him extremely strict when it came to the narration of hadīth. He was extremely
careful not to allow anything to be falsely attributed to the Prophet (peace be upon him). I believe this was due to his astute
awareness of the circumstances, for he feared that people would busy themselves with narrating hadīth and become less careful
about verifying what was being said. He also feared that people might become neglectful of the Qur’ān from which the
Sunnah derives its authority.
His strictness with respect to narrating hadīth did not indicate a lack of concern for
the Sunnah. Quite the contrary, he was planting the first seeds of hadīth criticism by emphasizing the need for scientific
scrutiny in the verification of the texts and of the character of those who narrate them. These measures that `Umar applied
were what later developed into the sciences of hadīth by way of which the Sunnah was preserved and protected from corruption.
`Umar fully appreciated the need to preserve and safeguard the Prophet’s example in its pristine purity for
future generations, free from being mixed up with the opinions of the narrators.
5. `Umar had witnessed many different
things during his years with the Prophet (peace be upon him). He had seen him in war and peace. He had seen the him carry
out various roles, that of governor, judge, preacher, jurist, father, husband, and legislator. From all of this, `Umar acquired
a clear understanding of how to emulate the Prophet (peace be upon him) and was able to develop a methodology that recognized
various levels of emulation, a methodology that was able to distinguish between obligatory matters and those that are customs
subject to being abandoned or modified depending on the time and circumstances.
`Umar possessed a spirit of emulation
that afforded him with an understanding of the spirit of Islamic Law – an understanding of its broad objectives as well
as its particulars. This can be seen in his practical application of the Qur’ān and Sunnah both during the Prophet’s
lifetime and after his death – in the discussions that he had with the Prophet (peace be upon him) during his lifetime
and in the juristic decisions that he later made on his own. These include his nominating Abū Bakr for the office of Caliph
after the Prophet’s death, his policy on not using Zakāh funds to reconcile people’s hearts to Islam, his imposing
a produce levy on captured lands, his expansion of the Sacred Mosque, his appointing a chamberlain, and numerous other policies
that he enacted.
Though it sometimes appeared that he acted contrary to the sacred texts in certain matters, a careful
study of his exercise of juristic discretion shows that he had been correct in his decisions and acted in accordance with
the dictates of the sacred texts, if not always a superficial understanding of their meanings. He acted upon the spirit of
the texts where the texts required it and upon the face value of the texts where the texts required it.
In conclusion, we would like to reiterate that a complete picture of how to emulate the Prophet (peace be upon him)
needs to be taken by looking at the practice of all of the Companions. No one from among the Companions ever claimed to have
comprised within himself every aspect of the Prophet’s example, so that the understanding of others could be dispensed
with. If that were the case, then he would have been no different than the Prophet (peace be upon him). Instead, each Companion
expressed his emulation of the Prophet (peace be upon him) through the filter of his own, unique personality.
very existence of the Companions shows how important it is to have a collective, social application of emulation that shows
us the way that the Prophet (peace be upon him) dealt with the revelation and applied it to the real situations that the people
faced. Through their collective example, we can see how the Prophet (peace be upon him) was able to build up the individual
believer, the Muslim community, and the nation according to the teachings of the Qur’an.
Some Companions conveyed
to us the Sunnah by relating numerous hadīth. Others, by contrast, conveyed to us the Prophet’s example through their
visible works, by applying it to all the circumstances that they faced.
If we understand the emulation of the Prophet
(peace be upon him) within the narrow confines of Islamic Law, then we are restricting the Prophet’s mission to matters
of the lawful and the prohibited. However, this is only one of the levels on which our emulation of the Prophet (peace be
upon him) must be carried out. The Prophet’s life has many other dimensions to it that we must pay attention to. He
was the Seal of the Prophets and the Message that he came with is the final Message for all humanity.
I do not suspect
that any of the Companions failed to realize this broad understanding of what it means to emulate the Prophet (peace be upon
And Allah knows best.